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Posted on 1 February, 2017 at 9:15

Che valore può avere un set di norme che viene puntualmente disatteso dai due terzi degli individui ai quali quelle regole sono indirizzate, che viene spesso piegato alle esigenze dei più forti e che in definitiva soffre di un problema di credibilità? Molto basso, verrebbe da dire. Ed è esattamente quel che pensa il Fondo monetario internazionale delle regole e politiche fiscali dell'Eurozona, in particolare del Patto di stabilità al quale si dovrebbero adeguare i Paesi membri, che invece sono costantemente fuori dai parametri.


Secondo il report di Washington, infatti i Paesi dell'Eurozona violano le regole del Patto di Stabilità in maniera a volte "sistematica". Per esempio, gli obiettivi fiscali di medio termine dal 2002 al 2015 sono stati violati "ogni singolo anno da quasi due terzi dei Paesi membri". Il rispetto delle regole, osserva il Fmi, "è peggiorato in maniera particolare durante la crisi: nel 2009 gli obiettivi di medio termine sono stati violati dal 90% dei Paesi, il tetto di debito dal 50%, il limite del deficit dall'85% e l'aggiustamento fiscale richiesto dal 75%". In parallelo, "la quota di Paesi con un debito superiore al 60% del Pil è salito dal 35% nel 1999 al 75% nel 2015". Numeri che arrivano a poche ore dalla scadenza che la Commissione Ue ha dato all'Italia per comunicare i contenuti della manovra da 3,4 miliardi di correzione dei conti pubblici.


Il Fondo suggerisce allora all'Europa di andare avanti con le riforme di bilancio, con attenzione proprio al Patto. Anche se le riforme del Patto di Stabilità finora attuare hanno migliorato l'efficacia del patto di Stabilità, gli "sforzi dovrebbero continuare". Per i paesi che lo rispettano dovrebbe essere creato un sistema in grado di premiare i loro sforzi. Dall'altro lato per chi non lo rispetta dovrebbero invece essere rese "le sanzioni più politicamente accettabili". "E' possibile e auspicabile avere un sistema più forte di incentivi, incluse graduali e proporzionate sanzioni e benefici per chi rispetta" il Patto di Stabilità, mette infatti in evidenza il Fmi. Le sanzioni economiche, infatti, non fanno che "esacerbare le difficoltà finanziarie di governi già sotto stress", menre d'altra parte si dovrebbero "creare benefici tangibili per chi rispetta le regole" come, ad esempio, "una maggior quota di fondi strutturali".


Dicendo che il processo decisionale dell'Eurozona manca di trasparenza, il Fondo rincara parlando di un "deficit di legittimità democratica" che ha "radici complesse e molteplici", tra le quali spiccano le "limitate competenze del Parlamento Europeo" che "creano un senso di carenza di democrazia". "Il Parlamento Europeo non ha iniziativa legislativa, non ha supervisione sul Consiglio Europeo e può sfiduciare la Commissione solo in blocco (non per singolo Commissario)", si legge nel documento, "di conseguenza, le istituzioni europee sono spesso percepite dall'opinione pubblica come entità non elette che non devono chiedere conto a nessuno".


E l'Italia? In questo panorama poco lusinghiero, è un "tipico esempio di Paese con un alto rapporto tra Pil e debito pubblico: è una nazione che ha poco o niente spazio fiscale". Secondo il Fondo, "la principale sfida per l'Italia è la ricomposizione di 'cuscinetti' di bilancio al fine di perseguire una politica fiscale ben ancorata in una strategia di medio termine".


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